Penetration Testing

 Penetration Testing                     A penetration test is a method of evaluating the security of a computer system or network by simulating an attack from a malicious source, known as a Black Hat Hacker or Cracker.                     A penetration tester should perform a penetration test when the penetration tester has written permission from the network owner.                     Penetration testing actively tests security controls and can cause system instability. Active/Passive Reconnaissance                     Active reconnaissance refers to the act of attempted to gather information from a group, website, etc. by the use of scanners, software, or a similar method requiring technical knowledge.                     Passive reconnaissance is characterized by the lack of technical expertise used to glean information.                                    As an example, finding employee names from a business’s public-facing website. Pivot & Initial Exploitation             

Threat Actors

 Threat Actors Script Kiddies Hacktivist Organized Crime Nation States/APT Insider Threats Competitors Script Kiddies                A Script Kiddie is some form of unskilled hacker who has no real skill of their own. They will utilize common or easily implemented vulnerabilities that can be found online.                Script kiddies are assumed to be unskilled and thus a minor threat when compared to other threat actors.                Script kiddies might be a threat to your untrained users, but generally user training and proper security controls on the network can mitigate most attacks that would be carried out by a script kiddie. Hacktivist                A Hacktivist is a person that uses hacking to promote a cause or push a political agenda                A hacktivist can be anything from an individual getting attention for a cause to a cyberterrorist.                                   *  This can cause a moral grey area when viewing a hacktivist. Some will support the        

Cryptographic Attacks

 Cryptographic Attacks Birthday Attack Rainbow Tables Dictionary Weak  Implementation Bruteforce Downgrade Birthday Attack                A birthday attack is an attack on hashed password that utilizes the same logic as the birthday problem. Which is to say, even if there are many different possible hashing outputs, you are likely to find two different inputs with the same hash.                The amount of attempts required for a probable match is less than one might think, for example:                                      -   1 in 21 (4%) chance to match after 100 attempts if there were 100,000 unique hashes.                                      -   1 in 3 (39%) chance to match after 100 attempts if there were 10,000 unique hashes.                Keep in mind, while more unique hashes exist, hashes can be brute-forced at a rate of hundreds per second. Rainbow Tables                A rainbow table is a table of common hashes for plaintext while using various hashing algorithms. These

Wireless Attacks

 Wireless Attacks Replay Attack Evil Twin/Rogue AP Jamming WPS Attack Bluejacking Bluesnarfing NFC Disassociation Replay                A replay attack is a form of network attack in which a valid data transmission is maliciously or fraudulently repeated or delayed.                An example of this would be an attacker capturing part of a communication stream and then later sending that communication stream to the server while pretending to be the client.                Rogue Access Points                A rogue access point is a wireless access point that has either been installed on a secure company network without explicit authorization from a local network administrator or has been created to allow an attacker to conduct a man-in-the-middle attack                If you notice an unauthorized wireless access point attached to your network, you should unplug the Ethernet cable from the wireless access point.                Port Security can prevent the installation of rogue access p

Application/Service Attacks - CompTIA Security+

 Application/Service Attacks DoS/DDoS Man-in-the middle Buffer Overflow SQL Injection XXS/XSRF ARP/DNS Poisoning Spoofing Zero Day Hijacking Attacks DoS (Denial of Service)                          A DoS (Denial of Service) attack is an incident in which a user or organization is deprived of the services of a resource they would normally expect to have.                          Commonly happen to web servers, and more often, by a single external user.                          Often accomplished using buffer overflows or by using multiple servers and/or routers to overwhelm another router or host. DDoS (Distributed Denial of Service)                          In a DDoS (Distributed Denial of Service), large numbers of compromised systems (zombies/bots) attack a single target in attempt to crash it. These zombie computers are being remotely updated by a command and control center. Man-in-the-Middle                          A form of active eavesdropping, or network sniffing, in which the

Types of Attacks - CompTIA Security+

 Types of Attacks Social Engineering                There are several “principles” (reasons for effectiveness) of Social Engineering: Authority Intimidation Scarcity Urgency Familiarity/liking Trust                      Any of these principles could help an attacker trick a victim into divulging information or unwittingly aiding in an attack. Phishing                Phishing is the act of sending an e-mail to a user falsely claiming to be an established legitimate enterprise in an attempt to scam the user into surrendering private information that will be used for identity theft.                User training needs to happen in order to be effective in stopping phishing attempts. Vishing                Vishing (Voice Phishing or VoIP Phishing) is phishing using the telephone as a means to find a target.                The hacker will typically use a war dialer to send a recorded message stating that there is an error with a victims credit card or bank account and leave a number to call

Types of Malware - CompTIA Security+

Types of Malware Viruses Ransomware Worm Trojan Rootkit Keylogger Adware RAT Spyware Logic Bomb Bots Backdoor   Virus                          A computer virus is a computer program that can copy itself and infect a computer without the permission or knowledge of the owner.                          A virus is a security threat to a system that requires interaction from a user. Virus Hoax                          A virus hoax is a false email message warning the recipient of a virus that is going around.                          When comparing a hoax and a virus, hoaxes can create as much damage as a real virus.                                    • Users are tricked into changing system configuration.                                    • Technical support resources are consumed by increased user calls.                          User training and e-mail spam filters are needed to stop a virus hoax from affecting your company. More virus types                          A multipartite virus